[1] In 1851, he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned. Mark Twain s-a născut şi a murit în ani ai apariţiei Cometei Halley. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well; he died the day after the comet made its closest approach to the Earth. … [6] His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty. He never wrote a line that a father could not read a daughter. [103], Twain was an adamant supporter of the abolition of slavery and the emancipation of slaves, even going so far as to say, "Lincoln's Proclamation ... not only set the black slaves free, but set the white man free also". [77] Afterwards, Fitch told him: Clemens, your lecture was magnificent. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. [59][61] There was a requirement that a copyright be registered to a Canadian resident; he addressed this by his short visits to the country. The perihelion, the point in the comet's orbit when it is nearest the Sun, is just 0.6 AU. [46]:188, Twain and his family spent four more years in Europe, mainly in England and Austria (October 1897 to May 1899), with longer spells in London and Vienna. [91], At Yale College in Connecticut, the comet was first reported on 31 August 1835 by astronomers D. Olmstead and E. On 14 March, the Giotto space probe, launched by the European Space Agency, made the closest pass of the comet's nucleus. You closed a most eloquent description, by which you had keyed your audience up to a pitch of the intensest interest, with a piece of atrocious anti-climax which nullified all the really fine effect you had produced.[78]. [53], In mid-1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House, located on the north side of London. Seen in China, at the same time as another comet. Un autore statunitense, non “americano” Oggi la fama di Mark Twain, almeno nel nostro paese, è generalmente associata a quella dei suoi due più famosi romanzi: Le avventure di Tom Sawyer e Le avventure di Huckleberry Finn, e per questo l’autore è dai più considerato uno scrittore umoristico per ragazzi. All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.[82]. It is a sin you must never commit again. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that Innocents critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. [16][17] These observations supported a number of longstanding hypotheses about comet construction, particularly Fred Whipple's "dirty snowball" model, which correctly predicted that Halley would be composed of a mixture of volatile ices—such as water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—and dust. In the soliloquy, the King argues that bringing Christianity to the country outweighs a little starvation. The book tells the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, acting as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. Un anno prima della sua morte, come raccontato da un biografo americano dell'epoca, lo scrittore affermò: “Sono arrivato con la cometa di Halley nel 1835. In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library banned both The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer from the children's department because of their language.[89]. Scriitorul Mark Twain s-a născut în anul 1835, exact în ziua în care cometa a apărut pentru prima oară. He later wrote the sketch "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed", describing how he and his friends had been Confederate volunteers for two weeks before disbanding. [122] In some later writings in the 1890s, he was less optimistic about the goodness of God, observing that "if our Maker is all-powerful for good or evil, He is not in His right mind". Mai mult, scriitorul a prezis că va muri atunci când cometa se va întoarce. [46] The non-gravitational effects can be crucial;[46] as Halley approaches the Sun, it expels jets of sublimating gas from its surface, which knock it very slightly off its orbital path. [79] His first important work was "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," published in the New York Saturday Press on November 18, 1865. 1973. The Prince and the Pauper was not as well received, despite a storyline that is common in film and literature today. [18], Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. Twain's next work drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. Twain patented three inventions, including an "Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments" (to replace suspenders) and a history trivia game. Twain's prediction was accurate; he died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Stormfield, one day after the comet's closest approach to Earth. [27]:28 In 1907, he met Dorothy Quick (aged 11) on a transatlantic crossing, beginning "a friendship that was to last until the very day of his death".[67]. It did not pass through its perihelion until 13 March 1759, the attraction of Jupiter and Saturn having caused a retardation of 618 days. [125], On 12 February 1991, at a distance of 14.4 AU (2.15×109 km) from the Sun, Halley displayed an outburst that lasted for several months, releasing a cloud of dust 300,000 km (190,000 mi) across. — Mark Twain. [b] Its shape vaguely resembles that of a peanut shell. [116][117], Although Halley's Comet's retrograde orbit and high inclination make it difficult to send a space probe to it,[118] the 1986 apparition gave scientists the opportunity to closely study the comet, and several probes were launched to do so. Cele mai cunoscute opere ale sale sunt The Innocents Abroad (1869), Roughing It … On a stormy evening I made a talk before a full house, in the village, clothed like a ghost, and looking as conspicuous, all solitary and alone on that platform, as any ghost could have looked; and I found, to my gratification, that it took the house less than ten minutes to forget about the ghost and give its attention to the tidings I had brought. Nascido durante uma das passagens do Cometa Halley, Twain morreu 74 anos depois, pouco depois do astro voltar a se aproximar da Terra. For the second part, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean. Oxford University awarded Twain an honorary doctorate in letters in 1907. It created an imperishable part of American literature. In a papal bull, Pope Callixtus III ordered special prayers be said for the city's protection. [73] Some claim that Genghis Khan was inspired to turn his conquests toward Europe by the 1222 apparition. [123] STS-61-E was a Columbia mission scheduled for March 1986, carrying the ASTRO-1 platform to study the comet. [60], The first certain appearance of Halley's Comet in the historical record is a description from 240 BC, in the Chinese chronicle Records of the Grand Historian or Shiji, which describes a comet that appeared in the east and moved north. [39] Because its orbit comes close to Earth's in two places, Halley is associated with two meteor showers: the Eta Aquariids in early May, and the Orionids in late October. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger",[73] which was in common usage in the pre-Civil War period in which the novel was set. [92], Astrophotography was not known to have been attempted until 1839 as photography was still being invented in the 1830s, too late to photograph the apparition of 1P/Halley in 1835. That is the history of the nom de plume I bear."[144]. From November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote 60,000 words for the novel. Știați însă că existența unui celebru scriitor e legată strâns de această cometă? [83], After witnessing a bright light in the sky which most historians have identified as Halley's Comet, Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia from 1434 to 1468, founded the city of Debre Berhan (tr. The fleets of the world could swim in spacious comfort in the innocent blood it has spilled. I wish him success. [51] Although only 25% of Halley's surface was imaged in detail during the flyby missions, the images revealed an extremely varied topography, with hills, mountains, ridges, depressions, and at least one crater. His scheduled lecture in Honolulu, Hawaii had to be canceled due to a cholera epidemic. Los campos obligatorios están … [61], The apparition of 87 BC was recorded in Babylonian tablets which state that the comet was seen "day beyond day" for a month. His financial adviser Henry Huttleston Rogers quashed that idea and got Twain out of that business altogether, but the book was published nonetheless. Tornerà di nuovo l'anno prossimo e mi aspetto di andarmene con lei”. "Será a maior decepção da minha vida se eu não for embora com o cometa", escrevera ele em 1909. In 1705 English astronomer Edmond Halley published the first catalog of the orbits of 24 comets. Nu mai încap în urechile mele scandaluri istorisite cu lux de amănunte și nici imagini reproducând cu fidelitate momente jenante. In 1909, Thomas Edison visited Twain at Stormfield, his home in Redding, Connecticut and filmed him. Ar fi cea mai mare … [25], He then left for Nevada to work for his brother Orion, who was Secretary of the Nevada Territory. Care este coincidența bizară dintre Mark Twain și cometa Halley? After some time had passed he published some works that his wife, his de facto editor and censor throughout her married life, had looked down upon. [28], Halley's prediction of the comet's return proved to be correct, although it was not seen until 25 December 1758, by Johann Georg Palitzsch, a German farmer and amateur astronomer. Mark Twain, "To the Person Sitting in Darkness", Fatout, Paul. The rest is just cheating. 0 comentarios. [59] Chinese chroniclers also mention a comet in that year. [citation needed] The book also introduces Huckleberry Finn in a supporting role, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship. © 2023 por Amante de Livros. Trecerea cometei Halley în apropiere de Pământ reprezintă un eveniment care are loc destul de rar, având în vedere că acesta se produce după aproximativ 76 de ani. A comet appeared. [94][95], During the Boxer rebellion, Twain said that "the Boxer is a patriot. [85] By studying data on the 1531, 1607, and 1682 comets, he came to the conclusion these were the same Comet, and presented his findings in 1696. [32] Most short-period comets (those with orbital periods shorter than 20 years and inclinations of 20–30 degrees or less) are called Jupiter-family comets. [85] In the decades that followed, more refined mathematics would be worked on, notable by Paris Observatory; the work on Halley also provided a boost to Newton and Kepler's rules for celestial motions. His experiences in Angels Camp (in Calaveras County, California) provided material for "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" (1865). As a result of this discovery, the comet is now named after Halley.[15]. He next focused on A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, written with the same historical fiction style as The Prince and the Pauper. [123], In 1901, Twain criticized the actions of the missionary Dr. William Scott Ament (1851–1909) because Ament and other missionaries had collected indemnities from Chinese subjects in the aftermath of the Boxer Uprising of 1900. Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia City, Nevada, where he became a miner on the Comstock Lode. I was proud of my performance for a while, and considered it quite wonderful, but I have changed my opinion of it long ago. Va fi cea mai mare dezamăgire din viaţa mea dacă nu plec odată cu cometa Halley. [59] Eventually, he received legal advice to register a copyright in Canada (for both Canada and Britain) prior to publishing in the United States, which would restrain the Canadian publishers from printing a version when the American edition was published. "[75] Chaco Native Americans in New Mexico may have recorded the 1066 apparition in their petroglyphs. Unusual for an object in the Solar System, Halley's orbit is retrograde; it orbits the Sun in the opposite direction to the planets, or, clockwise from above the Sun's north pole. [93] In 1899, however, he reversed course. First seen by. [24] Having compiled a list of 24 comet observations, he calculated that the orbital elements of a second comet that had appeared in 1682 were nearly the same as those of two comets that had appeared in 1531 (observed by Petrus Apianus) and 1607 (observed by Johannes Kepler). The two liked each other, and admired one another, and maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. [88] Streams of vapour observed during the comet's 1835 apparition prompted astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel to propose that the jet forces of evaporating material could be great enough to significantly alter a comet's orbit. Eight days later, Twain wrote to his friend Daniel Carter Beard, to whom he had read the story, "I don't think the prayer will be published in my time. Mark Twain (1909) Twain fou un personatge molt conegut a la seva època, i va ser amic de presidents, artistes, grans empresaris, i membres de la reialesa europea. However, Jean's health did not benefit from consulting with specialists in Vienna, the "City of Doctors". [92], A number of accounts of the 1835 apparition were made by those that survived until the 1910 return, where increased interest in the comet lead to them being interviewed. Additionally, he used the pen name "Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass" for a series of humorous letters. [24] Twain was guilt-stricken and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. "[141] The riverboatman's cry was "mark twain" or, more fully, "by the mark twain", meaning "according to the mark [on the line], [the depth is] two [fathoms]", that is, "The water is 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and it is safe to pass.". Enviar comentario Cancelar respuesta. Va veni din nou anul următor şi mă aştept să părăsesc lumea aceasta odată cu ea. Fewer than 200 copies were sold. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri. [45], Twain and his family closed down their expensive Hartford home in response to the dwindling income and moved to Europe in June 1891. [45] This was another piece that he was convinced would save his publishing company. He was lauded as the "greatest humorist the United States has produced," and William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature ". [72] Chinese records also report it as the "broom star". According to biographer Albert Bigelow Paine, the writer Mark Twain said in 1909, "I came in with Halley's Comet in 1835. 2/6. I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a nom de guerre; so I confiscated the ancient mariner's discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands – a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say. Twain used different pen names before deciding on "Mark Twain". ... You've come, you source of tears to many mothers, you evil. [46]:175 The family stayed mainly in France, Germany, and Italy until May 1895, with longer spells at Berlin (winter 1891-92), Florence (fall and winter 1892-93), and Paris (winters and springs 1893-94 and 1894-95).

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